In this section we define a couple more operations with vectors, and prove a few theorems. At first blush these definitions and results will not appear central to what follows, but we will make use of them at key points in the remainder of the course (such as Section MINM, Section OD). Because we have chosen to use \(\complexes\) as our set of scalars, this subsection is a bit more, uh, … complex than it would be for the real numbers. We will explain as we go along how things get easier for the real numbers \({\mathbb R}\text{.}\) If you have not already, now would be a good time to review some of the basic properties of arithmetic with complex numbers described in Section CNO. With that done, we can extend the basics of complex number arithmetic to our study of vectors in \(\complex{m}\text{.}\)

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##### An orthogonal set of nonzero vectors is linearly independent. math.la.t.vec.orthogonal_set.linindep